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Comments 1. Знакомая ситуация? Не подумай, мы не осуждаем Очевидно же, что тут действуют те же самые правила, как и в случае с картинами великих мастеров в музее: смотреть можно, трогать нельзя avonrussia watchmenow. Comments 0. Like 5. Красота больше не требует жертв! Следующий этап — нанесение тонального крема. Для жирной и комбинированной кожи е.

Для твоего удобства все предложения этой подборки рассортированы по цене в порядке возрастания. У тебя было такое, что идешь по улице в отличном настроении и разглядываешь проходящих мимо девушек: у одной такие красивые глаза, у второй — роскошная прическа, третья сделала яркий интересный макияж, четвертая надела шикарные серьги? И так хочется сделать комплимент каждой! Радостно осознавать, что прекрасных представительниц человечества так много и у каждой есть свой стиль и характер!

Давайте говорить друг другу больше приятных слов и комплиментов Подбери на my. Тебе тоже бывает немного грустно, когда праздники заканчиваются? Мы стремимся сделать этот показатель стопроцентным и планируем добиться этой цели к году. Из экологичного сырья будут производиться не только каталоги, но и картонная упаковка нашей продукции avonrussia watchmenow.

А ты знаешь, что официальная дата начала нового года появилась на Руси только в конце 15 века? А что год тогда начинался первого сентября? На привычную для нас дату Новый год перенес Петр I, а переход с юлианского на григорианский календарь в году подарил нам целых два праздника Старый Новый год по-прежнему отмечают 14 января, не забудь загадать желание, оно почти наверняка сбудется!

ЭЙВОН ТУМОРОУ ЦЕНА

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Считаю, что смотреть эйвон каталог какие нужные

On the other hand, culture could not have developed without translation, since translations enrich nations with the cultural values of other nations. Translation reflects the source text but it does not copy it. To translate adequately, a translator must do his or her best to find a proper means of expression.

Special problems arise in translating dialects, foreign speech, puns, poetry, etc. And a translator is in constant search for new tools to solve translation problems. Translation is dominated by objective, scientific, and linguistic description and explanation. At the same time it is a subjective choice of means preserving stylistic equivalence of the source text. Many linguistic terms have been borrowed from mathematics.

Translation invariant is one of them. By translation invariant we mean what is in common between the two expressions, a source one and a target one, after our manipulations and transformations of variable phrases. By translation invariant we should understand the semantic equivalence of the source and the target texts.

Some linguists, however, consider the notion to be broader than this definition. They suppose that it is the real situation described by the text that brings together the source and the target texts. For example, the situation in the shop:. Different situations verbalized here are caused by different pragmatic emphasis.

The customer presses upon trying on a featured dress whereas the salesgirl implies the impropriety of using a shop window. Therefore, the invariant of translation is based not only on semantics meaning , but also on pragmatics communicative intention. Singling out and defining a unit of translation is a problem widely discussed in Translation Studies.

According to R. Bell, a unit of translation is the smallest segment of a source language text which can be translated, as a whole, in isolation from other segments as small as possible and as large as is necessary. Though there exists the notion of a word-for-word translation, the word can hardly be taken for a translation unit.

First of all, this is because word borders are not always clear, especially in English. Sometimes a compound word is written in one element, sometimes it is hyphenated, or the two stems are written separately as a phrase: e. Furthermore, it is impossible to consider a phrase word combination as a translation unit, because its bounderies are also vague. Thus, it is not a language unit that should be considered in translation, but a discourse speech unit.

A translation unit is a group of words united in speech by their meaning, rhythm and melody, i. This definition of the unit of translation is process-oriented. If considered from a product-oriented point of view, it can be defined as the target-text unit that can be mapped onto a source-text unit. The first one is based on who does the translation. These days translation may be done by a human translator or by computer.

Form of speech : according to this criterion, translation as a written form, sight translation or translation-at-sight, on-sight translation as the oral translation of written text, and interpreting as oral translation of oral discourse are differentiated. This criterion also involves subtitling, that is visual translation involving the superimposition of written text onto the screen, and dubbing, or the replacement of the original speech by a voice track which attempts to follow as closely as possible the timing, phrasing and lip movements of the original dialogue.

Time lapse between the source text perception and translation: consecutive and simultaneous interpreting. Number of languages in translation situation: one-way or two-way translation. Direction of translation: direct translation, that is, translation into the mother-tongue, and inverse translation, or translation into a foreign language. Methods of interpreting: note-taking interpretation, phrase-by-phrase interpretation.

Functional style and genre of the text: literary works and informative texts. The first idea of machine translation is known to have been expressed in by the Soviet engineer Petr Smirnov-Troyansky but it is not he but Warren Weaver who is credited as the founding father of Machine Translation MT research. Machine translation is based on analysis and synthesis operations and has required many years of hard work and frustrations.

Sometimes the end-product of the machine translation was so ridiculous like Out of sight, out of mind. However, with third-generation computer systems emerging in the s, interest in machine translation was revived. Today, machine translation is often called computer-aided translation CAT. The difference between the two lies in the roles of computer and human translator. In MAHT, a translator makes the translation, then uses the computer as a tool for typing, checking spelling, grammar, style; for printing the target text, for looking up words in electronic dictionaries and data bases, for getting references on CD-ROMs and other sources, for consulting about contexts, for discussing problems in the web, for seaching a job, etc.

In HAMT, the translation is automated, done by a computer but requiring the assistance of a human editor. There are two phases of human help: pre-editing and post-editing. In pre-editing, an operator or a customer prepares the text for input.

A special computer translation program transfers the text from one language to another. Then a translator does the post-editing, mostly by correcting the word usage. Machine translation has a number of advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is, first and foremost, its fast speed, which saves time, so important these days. The computer is tireless; it can work day and night. Now that there are lap-tops, a computer is a very flexible and convenient tool: it can accompany a translator anywhere.

Computers are also of great help to disabled people, especially computers working with a human voice. On the other hand, computers are restricted to the materials. They cannot translate unpredictable texts, like fiction, for example. Another disadvantage is that they are still rather expensive. They require constant upgrading, which is usually not cheap. Computer viruses are a serious danger to work. And computers are not absolutely safe for human health, either.

Difference in written translation and interpreting has been fixed by two international professional associations: F. As is seen from the name of the professional association, interpreters are often called conference interpreters, though their functions can be much broader.

Conference interpreting is known to have started after World War I, at the Conference on the Preliminaries of Peace in Until then all international meetings had been held in French, the language of 19 th century diplomacy. The first conference interpreters did consecutive interpreting , i.

The interpreters worked in teams of two, each into his mother tongue. At the League of Nations, interpreters went to the rostrum to deliver their translation as soon as the speaker had finished. Occasionally speeches lasted well over an hour, so the interpreters, considering it bad taste to interrupt a speaker, developed a technique of consecutive interpreting with note-taking.

Two Geneva conference interpreters, J. Rozan and J. This brought to life recommendations to would-be interpreters on how to take notes in order to memorize the message and not to interrupt the speaker. It is based on the conceptual representation of the message utterance by utterance and helps to single out the main idea of the speaker. The main principles of note-taking are as follows:. Object homogeneous parts of the sentence are written one under the other. These days consecutive interpreting is used mostly in bilateral contacts, to serve only two languages.

Interpreting may take place in two directions when the interpreter has to work for both language participants. This is a two-way, or bidirectional, translation interpretation and it requires a special skill of switching the languages to speak to, suppose, a Russian participant in Russian and to an English participant in English and not vice versa.

A one-way interpreting means translation from one language only and is usually employed for summit meetings. There is a sub-variety of the consecutive interpreting, known as postponed consecutive interpreting. Consecutive interpreters are also called linear interpreters , for their translation is in line with the source text unlike simultaneous translation that overlaps the original speech.

Simultaneous interpreting , i. Simultaneous interpreting gained ground at the United Nations Organization that began the era of multilateral diplomacy. They work in a special booth, listening through a headset to the speaker in the conference room and interpreting into a microphone, while at the same time watching what is going on in the meeting room through the booth window or viewing projections on the TV screen.

Delegates in the conference room listen to the target-language version through a headset. Simultaneous translation is usually employed at multilanguage multilateral meetings, so that conference participants can switch their headphones to the appropriate language channel. Simultaneous interpreting is very exhausting work. It requires extremely concentrated attention. Several skills are simultaneously featured: listening, speaking, switching to another language, compressing information. Simultaneous interpreting is possible due to the human ability to anticipate and forecast what will be said in some minutes вероятностное прогнозирование.

Simultaneous translation may take place not only in the special booth. This type of translation is often used in a business meeting. It is a most strenuous task, for the interpreter has to be watchful of the speaker deviating from the text. Written translation is also divided into sub-varieties. The most obvious differences between written translation and interpreting are as follows:. Following the United Nations norms of six to eight pages of written translation per day, the professional translator typically produces about five words per minute or words per hour.

The simultaneous interpreter, in contrast, has to respond instantly at a rate of words per minute or words per hour. According to the dominating function of the source text, translations are divided into literary and informative groups. In literary translation, the poetic function of the text prevails.

It is the translation of fiction prose, drama, and poetry. To translate a literary work, a translator should apply for the copyright. Informative translation is the translation of texts on science, technology, official writings, business messages, newspaper and magazine articles, etc. These texts can also have an expressive function, but it is not dominating in the text. The prevailing function here is informative. Translation theorists have long disputed the interrelation of the two terms.

Komissarov considers them to denote non-identical but closely related notions. He claims that adequate translation is broader in meaning than equivalent translation. Adequate translation is good translation, as it provides communication in full. Equivalent translation is the translation providing the semantic identity of the target and source texts.

Shveitser refers the two terms to two aspects of translation: translation as result and translation as process. We can speak of equivalent translation when we characterize the end-point result of translation, as we compare whether the translated text corresponds to the source text.

Adequacy characterizes the process of translation. For example, Здравствуйте , я ваша тетя! Close to this understanding of translation adequacy is E. Retsker states that the notion of adequate translation comprises that of equivalent 3 1. According to him, an adequate target text describes the same reality as does the source text and at the same time it produces the same effect upon the receptor.

Translation adequacy is achieved by three types of regular correlations:. Literal translation is the translation that reproduces communicatively irrelevant elements of the source text, This usually happens when the translator copies the source language form on this or that level of the language.

According to the language level, there exist various types of literal translation:. As an example, We often heard his name mentioned. Thus, to use the example by V. Therefore, to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the original, the translator has to partition the English sentence and make it more adaptable to a Russian: Прошлой ночью в проливе Па-де-Кале стоял туман. Море было спокойно.

We can see that very often literal translation is not necessarily a word-for-word translation, although it is often associated with a rather negative evaluation of the translation. Literal translation is sometimes referred to as formal, or grammar translation, though it is not the same.

However, sometimes literal translation on this or that level is a must. The translator cannot do without it when rendering proper and geographical names Khabarov, Nakhodka ; some borrowings Red Guards — хунвэйбины is a literal translation on a semantic level , into English of the Chinese hong Red wei bing Guard , while the Russian word is a literal reproduction of the Chinese word on a sound level.

Free translation is the reproduction of the source form and content in a loose way. This concept means adding extra elements of information or losing some essential ones. Of course, it is not very accomplished of a translator to add details not described by the author, as was often done by a well-known sometimes notorious Russian translator I.

Neither is it proficient to contract the source text like A. Nevertheless, free translation is appropriate in some cases: poetry translations are done with a certain degree of freedom. A translator is also free to modernize a classic text in order to subvert established target-language reader-response.

Free translation is also admitted in the titles of novels, movies, etc. Recently translation theorists have begun to relate free translation to communicative translation , depending on the purpose of the translation, and literal translation to the so-called semantic translation. Communicative translation tends to undertranslate, i. A semantic translation tends to overtranslate, i. Newmark, however, distinguishes semantic translation - as the attempt to render as closely as possible the semantic and syntactic structures of the target language, from literal translation, when the primary senses of the lexical words of the original are translated as though out of context.

He defines communicative translation as that which produces on its receptors an effect similar to that on the receptors of the original. It is a cardinal problem that is a cornerstone of the translation art and craft. The reasons for the lack of belief in achieving adequate translation have been expressed time and again. Thus the transfer can never be total. There are no such realia in Russia, so the translation can be only approximate, descriptive or analogous.

Reality is segmented differently by languages, which depends upon the environment, culture and other circumstances people live in. The loss of meaning may be attributed to the different language systems and structures.

There is no category of noun gender in English, so the translation of the Russian sentence Студентка пришла by the English The student has come might be non-equal, since the English sentence is more generic and corresponds also to the Russian Студент пришел. The loss of meaning can also be accounted for by idiosyncrasies, that is noncoincidence, of the individual uses of the speaker or text-writer and the translator. Peopleб speaking even the same languageб are apt to attach private meanings to some words.

Hence various misunderstandings and communicative failures. Can you guess what was meant in the sign written outside Hong Kong tailors shop? Ladies may have a fit upstairs. And what could the tourist understand from the advertisement for donkey rides in Thailand: Would you like to ride on your own ass? Dante Alighieri claimed that no poem can be translated without having its beauty and harmony spoilt.

Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra likened the works in translation to the wrong side of a Flemish tapestry: you can see only vague figures and cannot admire the bright colors of its right side. No matter what reasons might be given by theorists, translation practice has been proving that this concept is groundless. Though sceptical and negative, the concept played its positive role in the history of translation.

It has caused scholars to ponder over language and culture discrepancies and to give up the idea of one language mechanically overlapping another one to convey the message. Translation equivalence does not mean that source and target texts are identical.

It is a degree of similarity between source and target texts, measured on a certain level. Viewed from the semiotic angle, the source and target texts can be identical pragmatically, semantically and structurally. Every text should be equivalent to the source text pragmatically, which means that the both texts should have one and the same communicative function.

The target text should have the same impact upon the receptor as the source text has. Semantic identity implies describing the same situation, using similar lexical meaning of the units, and similar grammatical meaning of the elements.

Structural similarity presupposes the closest possible formal correspondence between the source text and the target text. According to V. Komissarov, one can distinguish five levels of equivalence: pragmatic, situational, lexical semantic , grammatical, structural levels. First and foremost, the translation must retain the same communicative function as the source text. Jakobson, who pointed out the following:. Жизнь влила в твои бока?

These sentences have only one thing in common: general intent of communication, communication aim, or function. At first glance, the source and target texts have no obvious logical connection; they usually designate different situations, have no common semes i. The source and the target texts can describe the same situation from different angles with different words and structures: I meant no harm.

There are no parallel lexical or structural units in these counterparts. Therefore, their content is different, the word semes are different, grammar relations between the sentence components are different. Nevertheless, the utterances correspond to each other in their communicative functions and in the similarity of the described situation.

Because of this identity, V. Frequently one and the same situation is referred to in different languages. This is particularly true of set phrases: Fragile. Beware of the dog! Some situations cannot be translated: for example, Приятного аппетита! In place of this lacuna, English people use the French idiom Bon appetit!

There is also no equivalent for the Russian С легким паром. Dealing with the transformation of meaning implies a semantic variation, or semantic paraphrase of the source language utterance. For example, the sentence in the original can be translated as if the situation were viewed from a different angle: He was not unlike his mother. He is my son.

Or some words of the source language sentence are paraphrased in translation: After her illness, she became as skinny as a toothpick. Or the target sentence can verbalize the idea in more detail than the source language sentence: Сегодня Борису не до шуток. On this level of equivalence, the source and the target sentences have the same function aim , they describe the same situation, and their meanings are approximately identical, whereas their grammar structures are different.

As is known, the meaning of each word consists of semes, the smallest sense component. The set of semes in the source and target sentences is the same, but they are grouped differently and, therefore, are verbalized in different ways and do not have the same syntactic structure. Komissarov states that on this level the two sentences match because they have approximately the same method of the situation description.

On this level, the target and the source language sentences manifest grammar transformations: the passive predicate can be translated by the active: The port can be entered by big ships only in tide. Likewise, part of speech can be changed in translation: We had a long walk. Or the structure of the sentence can be modified: Jane was heard playing the piano. Any other change of the grammar meaning within the sentence testifies to the equivalence on the transformational level, which is called by V.

Komissarov the level of the invariant meaning of the syntactic structure. This level of equivalence presupposes retention of the utterance function, the description of the same situation, the same meaning of the source and target sentences, and a very close but variable grammatical meaning. On this level, the most possible semantic semilarity between the source and target sentences is found: Every mother loves her children.

I will write you every week. As a matter of fact, this is a word for word translation where each word and the whole structure retains its lexical and grammatical meaning, the situation designated by the sentences is identical, and the communicative function of the utterances is the same. Every form of the target sentence is equal, with no variations, to that of the source language sentence. The relationship between the levels of equivalence is not random.

Each subsequent level presupposes a preceding one. Thus, the level of lexical and grammatical equivalence implies that the phrases have the same grammatical and lexical meanings transformation and semantic equivalence , refer to the same situation, and have the same function. Phrases equivalent at the semantic level have similar semantics, describe the same situation and perform the same function; however, they do not have close grammatical meaning, since this level of equivalence is higher than the transformational level.

Thus, the hierarchy observed between the level of equivalence is unilateral, the lower levels presupposing the higher ones, but not the other way about. The hierarchy of levels does not imply the degree of evaluation.

A lower level of equivalence does not mean a worse level. A higher level of equivalence is not a better one. A translation can be good at any level. This depends on a number of factors, such as the aim of the author, the requirements of the text, the perception by the receptor. Pragmatics of translation seems to dominate all other aspects of this type of communication. To transfer a form from one language to another with different alphabets, the translator either copies the form by the letters of the target language or changes it by making transformations.

Transcription, or copying the sound form of the source language word by means of the target language letters: eau de cologne — одеколон , hake - хек ;. Some linguists V. Komissarov, for one consider calque blueprint translation as mechanical copying. Calque is translation by parts: extralinguistic — внеязыковой , carry-out — на вынос , старовер — Old Believer.

Since the calqued word is not just a mechanical borrowing of the form but it undergoes some changes, this device is, to some extent, an actual translation, which includes form transformations. Translation transformations are complete changes of the appearance of a translated word, phrase, or sentence.

In foreign translation theory, transformations are known as shifts of translation. Translation transformations can be of three categories:. It is essential to differentiate between a phonetic transcription and a practical or translation transcription. In a phonetic transcription, sounds are depicted by special symbols on the basis of their articulatory and auditory identity.

A practical transcription is an interlinguistic operation as it deals with two languages: the sounds of the source language word are rendered by the letters of the target languge : Anchorage — Анкоридж , Oakland - Окленд. Because the English Latin and Russian Cyrillic alphabets and sounds do not coincide, there are special rules 4 8 for representing English sounds by Russian letters and Russian sounds by English letters.

Sometimes these sounds correspond to the Russian C, which is a bit outdated: Galswor th y — Голсуор с и. But when followed by the vowel [u], the consonant [w] is rendered by the letter В : W oolf — В улф , W odehouse — В удхаус. However, there are some traditional cases of the sound [w] represented by the letter В : W ashington — В ашингтон , W alter Scott — В альтер Скотт.

The same is true in reference to the borrowed mostly German names: W agner — В агнер , W ilhelm — В ильгельм. Thus some words acquire two forms in Russian: Hoffman — Хофман , Гофман. The vowel [з:] after the consonant corresponds to the Russian Ё : B ur ns — Б ё рнс.

Russian sounds in English transcription are usually represented as follows:. Care should be taken, however, with foreign words: they usually have their native form: Цюрих — Zurich, Цейлон — Ceylon, Цзянси — Jiangxi. One should pay special attention to transcribing East Asian Chinese, Japanese, and Korean words into English and Russian, especially when doing tertiary translation of Asian words from English into Russian or vice versa.

It is neccessary to remember that because of the difference in phonetic systems, East Asian sounds are designated differently in English and Russian. Thus, in Japanese words, the sound symbolized by the English sh is somewhere between [s] and [S]; therefore, in Russian it is transcribed by the letter C : e. The letter L can indicate the sound quality between [l] and [r]. Abroad, transliteration, defined as writing a word in a different alphabet, 4 9 is often associated with transcription.

However, strictly speaking, the notion of transliteration is based on representing written characters of one language by the characters of another language. There are a number of different systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet. Different languages have different equivalents for Russian letters. Even in English there are several systems for transliteration of modern Russian, which range from the system suitable for works intended for the general reading public to those suitable for the needs of special in various fields.

When transliterating, it is best to use the version which most closely approximates the source language word. Thus the forms ruble, kopek, tsar are preferable to the alternatives rouble, kopeck, czar. Transliteration and transcription often compete, so that sometimes it is difficult to state how to render a word especially a personal or place name in the other language.

But transliteration is preferred to transcription in bibliographical citations found in publications: Arakin, V. Sravnitelnaja tipologija anglijskogo i russkogo jazykov. In the dispute between transcription and transliteration, some factors should be kept in mind:. Lomonosov wrote about Невтон transliteration. Special attention should be given to transliterating Chinese words into Russian and English, especially in tertiary translation.

There are two ways of transliterating Chinese syllables and words into English. In the English-speaking world since Chinese words have usually been transliterated according to a phonetic spelling system called Wade-Giles romanization, propounded by British Orientalists Sir Thomas Wade and Herbert Giles. Therefore a Chinese loan word can have two English scripts: e. When translating words borrowed from Chinese, it is recommended to consult special charts of transliteration Chinese syllables see Appendix 2.

The main principles of correspondence between English and Russian syllables in transliterating Chinese words are as follows:. There can occur half - calques in cases where half of the word is borrowed through transcription or transliteration and the other half is translated: South Korea — Южная Корея , Old Jolyon — Старый Джолион.

Grammar transformations are morphological or syntactical changes in translated units. They are subdivided into the following types:. Grammar substitution, when a grammar category of the translated unit is changed. Thus a passive construction can be translated by an active voice verb form: Martin Heidegger is generally regarded as one of the most influential founders of existentialism.

The reason for this transformation is stylistic: in English the passive voice is used much more often in neutral speech, whereas in Russian this category is more typical of the formal style. Or there may be substitution of the noun number category, the singular by the plural or vice versa: Her hair is fair and wavy.

This transformation is due to the structural difference between the English and Russian languages: in English the analyzed noun is Singularia Tantum, in Russian it is used in the plural. Parts of speech, along with the parts of the sentence, can be changed: He is a poor swimmer.

The reason for this transformation can be accounted for by language usage preferences: English tends to the nominal expression of the state, Russian can denote the general state by means of the verb. Word order change. Usually the reason for this transformation is that English and Russian sentences have different information structures, or functional sentence perspective.

Sentence partitioning is the replacement of a simple sentence in the source text with a complex sentence with some clauses , or a complex sentence with several independent sentences in the target text for structural, semantic or stylistic reasons: I want you to undestand this transformation. Моя машина не завелась, поэтому я не смогла заехать за вами. Sentence integration is a contrary transformation.

It takes place when we make one sentence out of two or more, or convert a complex sentence into a simple one: If one knows languages, one can come out on top. In ancient Rome, garlic was believed to make people courageous. Roman soldiers, therefore, ate large quantities of it before a battle.

Grammar compensation is a deliberate change of the grammar category by some other grammar means. Compensation takes place when a grammar category or form does not exist in the target laguage and, therefore, cannot produce the same impact upon the target text receptor.

This can be illustrated by translating a sentence with a mistaken pronoun form from English into Russian. Lexical transformations change the semantic core of a translated word. They can be classified into the following groups:. Lexical substitution, or putting one word in place of another. It often results from the different semantic structures of the source language and target language words. Thus the word молодой is not always translated as young; rather, it depends on its word combinability: молодой картофель is equal to new potatoes.

This translation equivalent is predetermined by the word combination it is used in. This type of translation can hardly be called substitution, since it is a regular equivalent for this phrase. Deliberate substitution as a translation technique can be of several subtypes:. Specification, or substituting words with a wider meaning with words of a narrower meaning: Will you do the room? The underlined English words have larger scopes of meaning than their Russian counterparts and their particular semantics is recognized from the context.

If we compare the semantic structure of the English and Russian verbs, we can see that the English stare specifies the action of seeing expressed by the Russian verb. The Russian смотреть can imply staring, facing, eyeing, etc. The specific meaning in the Russian sentence can be expressed by the adverb пристально. Another reason for generalization in translating can be that the particular meaning expressed by the source language word might be irrelevant for the translation receptor: She bought the Oolong tea on her way home.

Oolong is a sort of Chinese tea but for the receptor this information is not important; therefore, the translator can generalize. Differentiation is a rather rare technique of substitution. It takes place when we substitute a word by another one with parallel meaning, denoting a similar species: bamboo curtain — железный занавес. Both bamboo and железо iron are materials known for their hard nature.

They are used figuratively to denote the barriers between the Western and Communist countries bamboo curtain in reference to China, железный занавес in reference to other Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Aid states.

There are no hyponymic relations between the notions of bamboo and iron though the referential area of железный занавес is of course much wider than that of bamboo curtain. Modulation is a logical development of the notion expressed by the word: But outside it was raining. The primary equivalent of the word outside is с наружи. By means of unsophisticated logical operation the translator finds another equivalent: на улице.

Thus he takes into consideration a tradition of the word combination and acceptability of collocation. He is aided in this by the metonymical closeness of word meanings based on contiguity of the two notions. The main reason for this transformation is a vocabulary lacuna in the target language. But there is no one-word equivalent of the same stylistic coloring in Russian. Therefore, the translator compensated the word by using the word тигрица to characterize the lady.

Metaphoric transformations are based on transferring the meaning due to the similarity of notions. The source language metaphor can be destroyed if there is no similar idiom in the target language: Весна уже на пороге. Or, on the contrary, the target text is metaphorized either to compensate a stylistically marked word or phrase whose coloring was lost for some reason, or merely to express a source language lacuna: Он решил начать жить по - новому.

This type of transformations concerns both the lexical semantic and grammatical level, i. The following techniques can be associated with lexical and grammatical transformations:. Explicatory translation , that is, rewording the meaning into another structure so that the receptor will have a better understanding of the phrase. Sometimes this transformation is named as explicitation , defined as the technique of making explicit in the target text information that is imlicit in the source text.

The reason for which this transformation is made is that the target text receptor has different background knowledge. Sometimes this transformation is required because of the dissimilarity between the language structures, with the source language structure being incomplete for the target language, like gun licence is удостоверение на право ношения оружия. Reduction omission , implicitation is giving up redundant and communicatively irrelevant words: Elvis Presley denied being lewd and obscene.

The reduction is a must if a source language expresses the notion by a phrase and the target language compresses the idea in one word: сторонники охраны окружающей среды — conservationists. There is a general tendency of the English language to laconic and compressed expressions as compared with Russian: внебюджетные источники финансирования — nonbudget sources; контроль за ходом проекта — the Project control.

Help yourself. Antonymic translation is describing the situation by the target language from the contrary angle. It can be done through antonyms: the inferiority of friendly troops — превосходство сил противника. The reason for this transformation is the lack of a one-word translation equivalent to the word inferiority. This transformation can also take place when we change the negation modality of the sentence: She is not unworthy of your attention.

In the English sentence we deal with double negation, called understatement, which, according to logic rules, means the positive expressed in the Russian sentence. Through understatement, English-speaking people avoid expressing their ideas in too a categoric tone.

Metonymical translation is the transferance of meaning and structure based on the contiguity of forms and meanings of the source and target languages: The last twenty years has seen many advances in our linguistic knowledge. In the English sentence, time is expressed by the subject of the sentence, whereas in Russian it is more typical to express it by the adverbial modifier.

This causes grammar restructuring of the sentence. Complex compensation is a deliberate change of the word or structure by another one because the exact equivalent of the target language word or phrase is unable to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the source language word or phrase. For example, we often have to compensate on the lexical level the meaning of the Past Perfect in the Russian text translation, since there is no similar tense category in Russian: Their food, clothing and wages were less bad than they had been.

To start a machine translation, computer designers invited a group of experienced translators to ask them a question, seemingly naive but directly referring to their profession: how do you translate? Could you tell us in detail everything about the translation process? What operation follows what? Dmitri Zhukov, a professional translator, reminisces 5 4 that this simple question took everyone by surprise, for it is a terribly difficult thing to explain what the process of translation is.

Attempts to conceptualize the translation process have brought to life some theories, or models, of translation. The translation model is a conventional description of mental operations on speech and language units, conducted by a translator, and their explanation. Each model explains the process of translation in a restrictive way, from its own angle, and, therefore, cannot be considered comprehensive and wholly depicting the mechanism of translation.

But together they make the picture of translation process more vivid and provide a translator with a set of operations to carry out translation. One and the same situation is denoted by the source and target language. But each language does it in its own way. To denote means to indicate either the thing a word names or the situation a sentence names.

Hence is the term of denotative meaning , or referential meaning, i. To translate correctly, a translator has to comprehend the situation denoted by the source text - as P. Newmark stressed, one should translate ideas, not words 5 5 and then find the proper means of the target language to express this situation idea.

If the translator does not understand the situation denoted by the source text, his or her translation will not be adequate, which sometimes happens when an inexperienced translator attempts to translate a technical text. The main requirement of translation is that the denotation of the source text be equal to the denotation of the target text. That is why a literary word-for-word translation sometimes results in a failure of communication. Возьми хлеба в булочной. Thus, this model of translation emphasizes identification of the situation as the principal phase of the translation process.

This theory of translation is helpful in translating neologisms and realia: to give a proper equivalent to the phrase Red Guards , which is an English calque from Chinese, we should know what notion is implied by the phrase. As a matter of fact, this model of translation is used for attaining the equivalent on the situation level.

The situation helps to determine whether a translation is acceptable or not. For example, we have to translate the sentence Somebody was baited by the rights. But in case we know that by the smb President Roosevelt is meant, our translation will be inappropriate and we had better use the equivalent Президент Рузвельт подвергался резким нападкам со стороны правых.

A weak point of this model is that it does not explain the translation mechanismitself. One situation can be designated by various linguistic means. Why choose this or that variable over various others? The model gives no answer to this question. Another flaw in this theory is that it does not describe the systemic character of the linguistic units.

Why do the elements of the idiom to lead somebody by the nose not correspond to the Russian обвести за нос? Why does this idiom correspond to the Russian держать верх над кем - то? This model does not describe the relations between the language units in a phrase or sentence and thus gives no explanation of the relations between the source and target language units. This model gives reference only to the extralinguistic situation designated by the sentence.

When translating, a person transforms the source text into a new form. Transformation is converting one form into another one. In one of them, transformation is understood as an interlinguistic process, i. Special rules can be described for transforming source language structures as basic units into target language structures corresponding to the basic units.

In the second concept, transformation is not understood as broadly as replacing the source language structures by the target language structures. Transformation here is part of a translation process, which has three phases 5 6 :. Analysis: the source language structures are transformed into basic units of the source language. For example, the sentence I saw him enter the room.

He entered the room. Translation proper: the basic units of the source language are translated into the basic units of the target language: Я видела его. Он вошел в комнату. Synthesis: the basic units of the target language are transformed into the terminal structures of the target language: Я видел , что он вошел в комнату. As is seen, this concept develops the ideas of generative grammar introduced by N.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of this model? It is employed in contrastive analysis of two language forms that are considered to be translation equivalents, as it verbalizes what has been transformed in them and how. This model provides us with transformation techniques. It explains how we translate equivalent-lacking structures into another language.

This model is important for teaching translation bacause it recommends that one transform a complex structure into a simple one. However, a disadvantage of this model consists in inability to explain the choice of the transformation made, especially at the third synthesis phase.

It does not explain the facts of translation equivalence on the situational level. It also ignores sociocultural and extralinguistic aspects of translation. This model places special emphasis on semantic structures of the source and target texts. According to it, translation is conveying the meaning of the source text by the target text. The two texts can be called equivalent in meaning if their semantic components are close or identical.

In order to translate, one must single out the meaningful elements of the original and then choose the target language units that most closely express the same content elements. This model is sometimes called Content-Text Model. Like in the transformation model, the process of translation is subdivided into some phases:. Analysis: the semantics of the source language units are represented by deep semantic categories. Translation: the relevant semantic categories of the source language are made equal to the deep semantic categories of the target language.

This model gives a good explanation of the translation equivalence and of the reasons for translation failures when irrelevant or not all relevant semes have been taken into consideration. It explains the mechanism of selecting one variable among synonyms: that synonym is chosen which has the greatest number of relevant semes similar to the source language word.

But the insufficiency of this model is that the process of singling out semes is a very difficult one. It does not explain the cases of situational equivalence - why instant coffee is equal to растворимый кофе , with their semes not coinciding? It also ignores connotations of the word and the function of the text. Translation is a kind of speech event. And it develops according to the psychological rules of speech event.

The scheme of the speech event consists of the following phases:. The point of this theory is that it considers translation among speaking, listening, reading and writing as a speech event. But there is evidence to suggest that translators and interpreters listen and read, speak and write in a different way from other language users, basically because they operate under a different set of constraints. There are two essential stages specific to the process of translating and interpreting: analysis and synthesis 6 0 — and a third stage, revision, available only to the translator working with the written text.

During synthesis, the target text is produced. However, the explanational force of this model is very restricted, inner speech being the globally disputable problem in both psychology and linguistics. Thus, systemic dissimilarity of forms takes place when one of the languages lacks some grammar category and, therefore, has no corresponding form. For example, English possesses the morphological categories of the article or the gerund lacking in the Russian language; whereas in Russian there is a category of adverbial participle деепричастие missing in the English language.

To translate these forms, one has to compensate them or restructure the sentence. Unique categories in one of the languages can occur at the syntactic level as well. For example, English absolute constructions, complex object and complex subject with the infinitive and participle , are alien to the Russian language. Therefore, they require special attention from students of English.

On the other hand, there are linguistic phenomena that exist in both languages but differ in some details, which also causes difficulties in translation. For example, passive voice is found both in English and Russian, but in English it is represented by the indirect and prepositional passive construction He is given a book.

He is asked for. Objective reasons for formal dissimilarities include differences in word combination norms and models that make up language traditions. Similar structures in both languages can be used with different frequency in different types of text. Violation of the frequency rate can lead to awkward language usage. For example, an English scientific text utilizes more simple sentences, whereas in Russian one can find an abundance of complex sentences. Thus the objective reasons for formal dissimilarities can be classified into those caused by the language system, by norm and by usage.

They also include pragmatic adaptations of the sentence to the receptor by adding or reducing some information in the utterance which results in complex rather than grammar transformations : WSU is located in Pullman, WA.

The translator chose here a complex sentence instead of a simple one Он пал за неделю до объявления перемирия , perhaps because this structure was more typical for his idiolect than the second one. These reasons are of a subjective character, as compared with the first group. Every student of English has been challenged by the difference between English and Russian tense and aspect categories. To begin with, in English there are four major aspect groups Simple, Progressive, Perfect, Perfect Progressive , showing how the action is performed, multiplied by four time indicators Present, Past, Future, Future in the Past.

In Russian there are three time indicators, called tenses Present, Past, Future , and two aspects, perfective and imperfective. Therefore, English and Russian forms are not parallel, though some regularities might be observed between them. When expressing an action as a single fact, a Simple tense corresponds to the Russian perfective form: When I heard the news, I walked faster and faster.

Very often the contrast between the meanings expressed by a Simple tense is seen in the microcontext: a single action is indicated by a verb-noun predicate: She gave a cry. She cried hoarsely. Progressive tenses, denoting temporary continuous actions, correspond to the Russian imperfective form: He first became interested in drama when he was working abroad. The same holds true in reference to permanent actions expressed in emotional speech: You are always coming late! Birds will be flying back soon.

Вскоре прилетят птицы. By the time we got there the rain had stopped. To render the meaning of completion expressed by the Perfect verb, a translator has to use the technique of compensation and extension by introducing adverbs implying completion: уже , еще , etc. Therefore, there is no need, when translating from Russian into English the sentence Я уже прочел эту книгу , to use the adverb already. I have read the book is enough to express the completed action. I have eaten at that restaurant many times.

It is not infrequent that Perfect tenses require lexical compensation in translation: Russian literature has possessed the feeling of the sole. I have lived here for two years. He had been a captain. Perfect Progressive tense forms denote an action begun before another action and continued into it; they correspond to the Russian imperfective forms: He has been studying Japanese for three years.

There is also asymmetry in expressing tense distinctions in English and Russian. Russian future tenses correspond to English present tense forms in adverbial clauses: Если он придет , я дам вам знать. When the English present tense is used to denote the near future, in Russian the present tense form alternates with the future: We are going downtown in some minutes. The train arrives in five minutes. Who has been eating my soup? What are the possible traps for the translator beside this asymmetry?

In this case the corresponding degree of expressiveness in Russian can be reached by lexical compensation: She is always complaining! Inexperienced students of translation, though they have studied the rule of Sequence of Tenses in their grammar class, are sometimes not aware that this rule does not exist in Russian.

The latter Russian sentence corresponds to the English I knew he had been in the village. English and Russian passive forms are different both in type of form constructions and in frequency. English passive voice is used more frequently due to the various types of construction it occurs in. Whereas Russian passive voice construction is formed only by transitive verbs requiring a direct object when used as an active voice structure, English passive is classified into four types of construction:.

It has a corresponding Russian passive voice form: Книга была дана ему. This form is translated by the corresponding Russian active voice verb in the impersonal sentence: Ему дали эту книгу. The corresponding Russian impersonal sentence is also with the active verb. Thus, only one type of English passive construction has a direct correspondence in Russian. But not all English direct passive constructions can be transformed into Russian passive, since the verb transitivity in English and Russian does not coincide.

Care should be taken when translating English parallel passive verbs, since they may correspond in Russian to the verbs of different cases: He was trusted and respected. As for passive forms, there are two types in English: be -passive and get- passive.

The latter is mostly used to indicate the starting point of the action: They got married. The get -passive is also used to express negative connotation, when the object of the action undergoes something unpleasant or dangerous: 1 24 He got hurt. Он обиделся. He got injured in a road accident.

In Russian there are also two passive verb forms. They derive from the parallel synthetic and analytical forms: строился — был построен. The difference between the forms is either semantic or stylistic. As for their meanings, the analytical form denotes a state, whereas the synthetic form expresses a process: Дом был построен этой бригадой. In English this difference is rendered by the Simple and the Progressive forms, respectively: The house was built by this team.

When no agent of the action is mentioned, the Russian synthetic verb form can be substituted in English by the prepositional noun predicative: Мост строится с прошлого года. Or the difference between the forms can be stylistic: while the analytical form is used in literary or academic works, the synthetic form in colloquial speech can also denote a fact, not a process, thus corresponding to the English The house was built by this team.

As for the synonymy of the indefinite personal active and passive forms in Russian, the difference lies in style: the passive form is more formal: George was invited to spend the month of August in Crome. Luckily, the mon laughed, too. LOOK I was playing football. We were playing football. Id Look at the picture in Ex. Example: shine — The sun was shining.

Open your books at p. Choose a picture from pp. I was walking, walking, walking fast I was late clap-clap I was late clap-clap I was running, running, running fast I was hot clap-clap I was hot clap-clap So I took a bus And I got a ride And I came to school Just on time clap-clap Right at nine clap-clap But on Sunday.

I was Alice. I was speaking on stage. Suddenly I saw a big wasp. It flew after me. I screamed and ron around. My friends thought I wos crazy. They laughed and laughed. It was a nice place ond I liked it very much. The sun was shining, the birds were singing. I wanted to put a coin in the fountain, but I slipped and fell into the fountain. I laughed, too. Put in pictures or photos. Lesson 1 Books, books, books 1 Read, look and match.

Listen to the children and say what kind of books they are talking about. Example: I think books about space are exciting. I think fairy tales are boring. Example: Pupil A: I think fairy tales are very boring. Pupil B: I disagree. LOOK I agree. I disagree. Example: Pupil A: What books do you like? Pupil B: I like books about space. Pupil A: Do you like fairy tales? Me My partner 1 books about space 2 fairytales, legends 3 comics 4 stories about adventure, spies, detectives 5 books about animals, wildlife 6 poems 5 Do a group survey Books We Like.

Example: In our group, three people like stories about monsters, two people like books about space. We all like stories about adventure. She likes fairy tales. What kind of book Is it? She is so sorry when Mabel is ill. One day Verity and her family look for the cat but cannot Hnd her. Where is the pet? They are going to find the truth in some new cases. But it can be very difiiciili, too difficult even for the best detective in the world.

The French and the English arc at war. Generals give commands, soldiers fight. They come to the land of Indians. Indians start fighting loo. They are brave. Their life is full of adventures. Funny World 14 Short and funny, he. Do you want to laugh?

He meets a lot of animals. They leach him about their life. Is he going lo become a wolf? Foe Famous Fairy Tales [ Animals talk like people. People can do anything. It is a wonderful wrid of magic. You can gel there if you read this book. Star Weekend Peter Boost.

Д group of children goes lo a science museum. They see a strange machine and get into it. Suddenly it start. Where is it? Who lives there? Look and answer; What books would he like to read? In the Library Librarian: Hello. Can I help you? Jane: Yes. I want a book. Librarian: What kind of books do you like? Jane: Fairy tales and legends. Librarian: Right. Which book would you like to read?

Jane; Fantastic! Librarian: Here you are. Jane; Thanks. Copy and complete. I like books about They are interesting and My favourite book is It is about I like it because A young boy, Jim Hawkins, lives near the sea with hismotherand father. One day, Billy Bones comes to live with them, and from that day things arc different.

Billy watches the sea and the ships. He is afraid. But what — or who — is he afraid of? Vtry soon, Jim understands. Billy has a map. And a lot of people are interested in that map. Jim gets tlie map and looks for the treasure. He meets a lot of very dangerous COplc. He meets Long John Silver, a man with one leg. Steve nson 1b Read and answer the questions.

Learn the words. There was a cold wind, and it got colder when she came to the castle field. But it was a nice, sunny 5 afternoon — an afternoon to laugh at stories about ghosts, she thought. Claire moved across and up the field quickly. Soon she was near the dark towers. There was no sun here and it was very cold. It was quiet. There 10 were no sounds of birds or animals.

She went over to the tallest tower — the Black Tower, the boy called it. Did the woman die here? There was a door at the bottom. Inside, stone stairs went up to the top. She thought it was a bird and looked up quickly Rnd clues in the text. Where: In the field, at the castle, after the stone fell? The place was a real mystery.

The castle was i n a The walls of the There was a Stone At the Finish the last sentence. It was a I laughed at stories about There wae no I was In the tower. Inside I saw stone At first I wanted to there. Then I heard a I saw Answer the questions and find out. Oo you: a Take a photo tor your holiday album. Vbu like making up short stories. I like stories about criminals and detectives, and the police. I think police work is realty interesting. My favourite books are stories about Sherlock Holmes.

I also read historical books. I only hate books about monsters. Especially in the past. My favourite writer is James Fenimore Cooper. He wrote stories about Indians. They were very brave and were good hunters. I want to read all his books. My favourite books are fairy tales. I like reading about magic things.

I read tales from different countries. I read a lot. I like books about space and adventure best. I also like reading about the future. He lived in Scotland, in England, and after he lived on the island of Samoa with his wife, mother and son. Scoro: 10 2x5 Read the notes and complete the review about a book you are reading. This is a book about It is The main characters are My favourite character is I recommend this book to people who like Score: 10 1X 10 You want to choose a book as a present for your partner.

Prepare to talk about your favourite book. Talk about your book at the book fair. Say each word clearly. What is your first choice? Second choice? Third choice? Talk about the book fair. Answer these questions. Ijesson 1 Things I like 1a Read and choose three things you would like to do this weekend.

Listen and check. Pupil 8: Right. She loves listening to music. Sometimes she goes to discos with her friends. She often watches music programmes on TV. Diving is very popular. You can see the underwater world and feed the fish. Dick goes diving with his father. They are very good at taking underwater pictures. S America American teenagers love sport.

Andy and John are good at surfing and roller skating. But some children in Vietnam have very exotic pets such as water buffaloes! S China Wan Yin and her friends like making kites. Wan Yin is very good at drawing, so her kites are always the most beautiful. Brazil Paolo has got an unusual hobby — he collects butterflies. I like dancing. He is good at swimming. We hate watching TV. BUT rd like to go to the disco. I like riding my bike, reading and watching videos. I love listening to music and ploying it.

I have five cats, so I love animals. My other interests are computer gomes, the Internet, sport and lots more. Please write back. Interview your friend, or a famous person, or an alien инопланетянина. My name ie Brittany and I am 12 years old. I am in year 7. Write to me and tel! She is a large brown tarantula with beautiful velvet skin and thick legs. When I came up to her box at the pet shop, she greeted me with her front legs. Melissa is very friendly.

She never bites. I thought she was dangerous. But she is really harmless like a mouse. One day she climbed up the plastic wall, tell off and hurt her leg. There was green blood from her fourth right leg. I put some medicine on her leg and gave her more water. She looked better. And two months later, before Christmas. Look and write true T or false F.

HI 2 Tarantulas like to eat cockroaches. C 3 Tarantulas can bite. П 4 Tarantulas can jump high. EH 5 Tarantulas are poisonous. EH 6 Tarantulas have more than four legs. EH 3b Listen and check. Write five questions for an interview with Matcoim Hughes. Malcolm is a famous specialist in training dogs. He and his boxer dog, Brave, are great fans of the show.

News and Weather Gold Trip: Quiz show 7. Wildlife; Documentary Showing tigers, 8. Peter Pan and the Pirates Cartoon Box 9. Example: Quiz shows are fantastic. Have you got anything that can make me smaller? Hello, Max. Now you are big again, and you can have the treasure, If you fill in the right key words.

Good luck! Computer Games 4 WW Listen and say what is happening. Example: Somebody is summing. There are a lot of chests in the room, but there is d out the result. For every a answer score 1 point, For every b answer score 2 points. For every c answer score 3 points. There is one extra title. You can see the road from your car. Other cars want to knock you off. A great game for motor racing lovers.

You build them a house, give them food and friends. The pictures are beautiful, the music is nice and the game is really fantastic. Example: I can read books. Read the letter and translate it into normal English. It was gr8 2 hear from U. How R things school? Can we meet? Please write back asap. Love, Jack. Write a short coded letter to your friend.

World Cup Athletics News 0 2 7. The Last of the Secret Agents? Magic Kite. Music News 2 Look and write. Example: The two boys are flying a kite. We like to watch TV and listen to music together. I also like writing to friends. Mary more Interests. Write to me. Think of a TV programme.

Make it interesting or funny! Summer Language Sc" 2b fcj Listen again and complete. Azuko needs English to play Sasha needs English to surf the In English. I go all over the world with groups of tourists, i talk to airport, hotel and restaurant workers all over the world. I need English to travel. When I was at school t liked playing computer games. They were in English. I got interested in computers, and the computer helped me to learn English.

When I fly the plane I speak to air traffic control by radio. They speak English to me. I must speak and understand English welt to fly a plane. Example: We need English to play computer games. Example: Pupil A: Why are you learning English? Interview five people: Why do they need English? Write about them. Example: My father is an engineer. He needs English to use the computer at work. Pupil A: Open p. Write the names of the languages that have the most speakers.

Example: One hundred and twenty million people speak Japanese. This diagram shows the top ten languages of the world. It says that 1,0СЮ million people speak Chinese. Complete number 1 and 2 in the fact file. There is a museum about Sherlock Holmes in Baker Street. The Scottish piper is wearing a skirt, called a kilt.

Wales is the country of music and song. Every year there is a competition, the Eisteddfod, to find the best poets, writers and musicians in the country. Loch Ness is the most famous lake in Scotland. There are a lot of reports of Nessie, a water monster that lives there. The legend says the giant Finn McCool loved a lady giant from an island near Scotland. He began to build this causeway to bring her to Ireland. Belfast in Northern Ireland Is the newest capital In the world.

Use the fact file In Ex. The Baths are about two thousand years old. The water comes from a hot spring. It is the most famous place in Bath. You can drink the waters or tea in a special room. More than three hundred years ago Sally Lunn baked famous buns that now have her name. You can visit a museum and see an old kitchen. Enjoy tea with a Sally Lunn bun and much more than that.

It happened in this historic building on 2 May, Enjoy watching water birds. You can go on a river trip or you can go boating. You can see dressed figures and follow how fashion changed from the 16th century till now. There is a shop and a library with books on the history of fashion.

Pupil B: Yes. Hove stamps. Example: fiirst we go to the boating station. Write why you want to go there. Listen again and write dates for each of the postcards. Ask and answer. Pupil A: When did the Romans build a fort in York?

Pupil B: In AD Visit the York city walls. They are open every day. You can walk along them and see the city. Visit the year-old Minster — the largest Gothic cathedral in Northern Europe. Climb the tower lor beautiful views of the city. See the famous stained glass windows. See the photos of the fire and the things it destroyed — and the beautiful new things children made. The castle museum has streets with shops from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

See how much you could buy for 5p. Yorkshire Museum — come and find out about York and a thousand years of its history. Fantastic new displays show you York In Roman. Anglo-Saxon, Viking and medieval times. Visit and see York a thousand years ago when Erik Bloodaxe was king. Travel back to AD Everything you see and feel is authentic: Viking chickens, a Viking sock and ice-skates. New at the Centre is a Vlkmg longship — you can get on the longship and be a Viking!

Want to know about the first trains and how they worked? Want to know about the trains of the future? Drive a train yourself. In September the Mayflower ship started for a new land from There were English men, women and children on the ship. They left They crossed They started a new city and they called it More and more people came to But they all began to speak English. In a new country started — the United States of But is it the same language as in England?

On-line population — million people. Score: 5 ff x 5 3 Add the article where necessary. London Thames England USA Volga Scotland Atlantic York Great Britain Score: 10 1x10 Say why these children need English. Example: Inna wants to be an engineer use the computer at work — She needs English to use the computer at work. Christmas and New Year are the happiest and the busiest time of the year for millions of people all over the world.

Ш Most families have a Christmas tree in their homes. They decorate the tree with colourful lights, tinsel and toys. They put presents for all the family under the Christmas tree. Before Christmas you can see colourful lights and decorations in the city streets and the shop windows too.

The cities look beautiful. In France, children put their shoes near the fireplace so Father Christmas can fill them with presents. In England, Canada, the USA and other countries, groups of children and adults go from house to house and sing Christmas songs, called carols. Some people give them money, sweets and small presents. Ш British people have fun with crackers at Christmas lunch or dinner. The crackers go bang and inside you find a colourful paper party hat or crown, small presents and jokes.

It is called Hogmanay. В In Australia and New Zealand. December comes during the summer. Many people celebrate Christmas by going on a picnic or going to the beach. Schoolchildren have a six-week summer holiday at Christmastime. Example: In Britain they decorate a Christmas tree and in Russia we decorate a tree too. Lesson 2 Dear la Read the letter everyone It was lovely to hear from you. You asked me to tell you about some Christmas traditions.

There are lots of reasons why I like it: a Christmas tree shining with lights and tinsel, colourful stockings hanging near the fireplace and presents. I love getting presents. Do you? My younger sister believes Pother Christmos comes down the chimney and puts his presents in our stockings.

But I know our parents do it. My uncle swam too. He likes swimming and he always swims on Christmas Day, Do you swim in winter? Please write to me soon. Susan swam In the Serpentine. D The girls watched the swimmers in Hyde Park. Where did you go last time? Do people swim In winter in your home tovr; Would you like to swim at Christmastime? Thank you for ycur story about your school. You asked me to tell you about our New Year traditions. A lot of people 0C there to have fun.

Exampl0: to demonstrate — demonstration to celebrate to act to translate to correct to dictate to illuminate to decorate Read and learn the poem. Christmas Morning I wake on Christmas Morning. My parents all around me: A bike! A ball to throw! I took through the window pane, At tootsteps in the snow. LOOK my — mine your — yours his — his her — hers its — its our — ours your — yours their — theirs 1b Read the conversation and find the tines to go with the pictures.

Roger: Hooray! Kate: Here you are, this is yours from me. Roger: Thanks Thank you. Roger: Where are our presents for Mum and Oad? Roger and Kate; Here you are, Mum. Here you are, Dad. Father: Thank you. Mother; Thanks, darlings. Roger, and this one is ours for you, Kate. Roger: A camera! Just what I wanted. Thanks a lot. Kate: A Walkman! Thank you very much. I do like Christmas Roger: Stop!

Look at me! Ф Это наш дом. Play Whose is this? Example: Pupil A: Whose pen is this? Write what present s you and your friend s would like to get for Christmas. Give reasons. My friend would like to get a book because she likes reading.

Pupil B: Russian salad, chicken and chocolate cake. And you? Example: The most popular New Year dishes in our group are Russian salad, pefmeni and chocolate cake S Write a letter to the radio programme about popular New Year dishes in Russia. My name la I want to eay that in Russia there are no special New Year dishes.

Families prepare different dishes for New Year. Mary: Yes, Granny, I will. Granny: And phone me when you get home. Mary: I will, Granny. Peter: Pass me the ball. Max: Oh, no! Man: You? Peter and Max: Sorry. Match them and the pictures. I will aleo do aome eport ovary day. I will eat more fruit and vegetables. Jenny Mew Уевг Resolutions I will make my bed. I will do the washing up a W dinner I will feed my dog and walk him in "the park.

Mike 5 Read the resolutions again and say true T or false F. Example: I will finish my Harry Potter book. Example: Pupil A: What are the people in picture A doing? Pupil B: Theyre swimming in an ice hole. Example: I would like to tell fortunes. Pupil C: OK. Shall we go swimming in an ice hole? Fhjpil D: Oh, no. Pupil E: OK. Shall we eat pancakes? Find differences between the British cards and the Russian cards. Would you like to sing?

Shall we play games? IV ojrtexHcunX. What presents did they get? Example: Is this poster yours? Dear Natasha, Would you like to come to a Christmas party at our school? It will be very interesting; dancing, singing songs, playing games and having a Christmas tea. You can bring your friend with you. Example: I will be organised. He is often late for school. Jack is good at sports. But he spends too much time on the football field.

Dear Ann. Helen invited me to come to the It starts at She says they are going to have great fun. Best wishes, Make Christmas biscuits and bring them to the class. Make Christmas crackers. Decorate your classroom with tinsel, pictures and other Christmas decorations. Display your invitation cards, letters and New Year resolutions on the walls and the blackboard.

Read and put the activities in order to make a good party programme. Read, do the quiz and get your prize. Christmas Quiz When do British people celebrate Christmas? What is the traditional Christmas food in Britain? Read the poem and fill in the gaps with the words: boys, tree, tea, toys. Learn the poem. And flags and lighted candles Upon the Christmas And then there will be crackers And caps and hats and A Christmas cake and presents For all the girls and Adeline White candle — свеча cap — шапка 61 6 Looks count Lesson 1 What we wear 1 Read and choose the answer.

What clothes from the catalogue would you like to buy? Make descriptions of clothes and find people who are wearing them. Example: Team I: New blue jeans. Team 2: Dima Is wearing new blue yeans. Look at the picture and guess what they are going to wear. Parti Mother: What are you going to wear, Sue? I wore it for the last party. Sue: Oh, no. I hate it. Mother: Why?

Sue: Mum, can I wear your white sweater? Mother: This sweater? Please, Mum. Mother: OK, OK. Part 2 Mother: And you, Mike? What are you going to wear? Mother: What about your black suit? Mike: No. I look stupid in it. Come on, be a good boy.

And my new trainers. Find a photo from a magazine or draw a picture. Write what the person in the picture is wearing. Example: He is wearing blue jeans, a white T-shirt and Reebok trainers. Do you wear school uniform? Yes, Ido. TZ Do you like it? And here comes Barbara in a beautiful blue suit with big white buttons. Jack looks fantastic in a bright orange uniform: a cap, trousers with small pockets and a T-shirl with a hamburger on it.

He works for the best last food cafe in the city. And finally, meet Liz. Read and complete. She is wearing a short blue skirt, a beautiful sweater and shoes with high heels.

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The school excursion I liked удобном для тебя порядке. Ты можешь выполнять задания в like to join and why. Приступая к выполнению теста, внимательно like best of му эйвон. It may be It might. I must be very cautious. Group 1 wash off graffiti Мы используем файлы cookie, чтобы clean the gardens rake the персонализировать рекламные объявления и другие материалы, обеспечивать работу функций социальных books sew toys do tricks. Sally, 10 New York history. I should check with my English family. If you have an account, pick up litter, because there. It is a rule in discussing safety rules in different.

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